Lead-acid battery knowledge

Lead-acid battery knowledge

Lead-acid battery is a common storage battery that is also widely used in various power systems. It is favored for its low cost and relatively high energy density. In this article, we will introduce the basic principles, working principle, advantages and disadvantages of lead-acid batteries, as well as their applications in different fields.

Lead-acid batteries

1、Basic principles of lead-acid batteries

A lead-acid battery is a chemical battery whose working principle is based on chemical reactions. It consists of a positive electrode (lead dioxide) and a negative electrode (lead) separated by a dilute sulfuric acid solution. During the discharge process, lead dioxide reacts with lead to form lead acid and water, releasing electrons. During the charging process, lead acid and water react again to form lead and lead dioxide, which absorb externally powered electrons.

2、How lead-acid batteries work

The working principle of lead-acid batteries follows the basic laws of electrochemical reactions. During the discharge process, the chemical reaction between lead dioxide (PbO2) on the positive electrode and lead (Pb) on the negative electrode generates electrons. These electrons flow through the external circuit and are provided to the load. At the same time, the negative ions (S04) in the sulfuric acid solution also participate in chemical reactions to help maintain the electrical neutrality of the battery.

3、Advantages of lead-acid batteries

1. Low cost: Lead-acid batteries have relatively low manufacturing costs and are suitable for large-scale applications.

2. High energy density: Lead-acid batteries have high energy density and can provide continuous power supply.

3. Strong vibration resistance: The active material inside the lead-acid battery exists in solid or colloidal form and has high resistance to vibration.

Lead-acid batteries

4、Disadvantages of lead-acid batteries

1. Larger weight

The density of the positive and negative electrode materials of lead-acid batteries is higher, resulting in a larger weight of the battery itself.

2. Fast self-discharge

Lead-acid batteries discharge themselves when not in use, so they need to be charged regularly to maintain their performance.

3. Limited life

Lead-acid batteries have a short cycle life, and their performance usually begins to decline after hundreds of charges and discharges.

5、 Application fields of lead-acid batteries

1. Car starting battery

Lead-acid batteries are widely used in car starting batteries to provide starting High current required by automobiles.

2. Solar energy storage system

Lead-acid batteries can store the electricity generated by the solar power generation system. For use at night or on cloudy days.

3. Power system backup power supply

Lead-acid batteries are often used as backup power supply for power systems to provide instantaneous or short-term power supply.

4. Electric vehicles

Lead-acid batteries are used in some low-speed electric vehicles to provide the energy needed to drive the motor.


Lead-acid batteries are a common and mature battery technology with lower cost and relatively for higher energy density. Although it has some disadvantages, such as heavy weight and limited life, it is still widely used in many fields.

With the continuous development of science and technology, people’s requirements for batteries are also increasing, and lead-acid batteries may face more challenges and improvements in the future.


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